Testarea online a cunoştințelor | Elearning în România (2024)

Testarea online (E-testingul) poate fi utilizat pentru realizarea diferitelor activităţi didactice de examinare, evaluare sau autoevaluare, colectarea de statistici privind gradul de asimilare a cunoştinţelor, feedback operativ, comunicarea cu cei examinaţi, etc. Dar cel mai important este că permite oricăruievaluator realizarea unor teste cu maximă precizie şi profesionalism în doar câteva minute,utilizând colecţii profesionale de itemi, elaborate de experţi.

Testareaelectronică poate fi efectuată la cerere, în mod repetat, încurajând învăţareaprin repetarea subiectelor evidenţiate de testare ca fiind deficitare; permite monitorizarea rapidă a progresului unui număr mare de cursanţi; utilizarea unor bănci de teste, cu mixarea întrebărilor şirăspunsurilor care pot preveni copierile la examene; includerea unui număr mare de diverse tipuride întrebări într-untest, acoperind mai bine materia studiată. Un alt motiv pentru evaluarea cuajutorul calculatoarelor este nevoia de obiectivitate a evaluării, care impune standardizareaacesteia. În locul răspunsurilor libere, care sunt analizate şi notate de o persoană, în multe domeniipot fi utilizate metode de testare care elimină / diminuează mult factorul subiectiv.

,,Printre dezavantajele examinării asistate de calculator vom menţiona: limitarea posibilităţilor de testare a abilităţilor, accentul fiind pus pe memorare şi recunoaştere; costuri ridicate în faza iniţială; cunoştinţe suplimentare în zona de informatică; limitările sistemelor computerizate privind itemi deschiși şi altele. Drept urmare, evaluarea automată este recomandatădoar pentru unele domenii, la altele fiind necesară atâttestareaelectronică, cât şi evaluarea clasică. Însă acestea sunt dificultăţi de moment, căci în societatea informaţională modernă toată lumea vafi familiarizată cu calculatorul, iar dezvoltarea sistemelor de inteligenţă artificială, de testareadaptivă, etc., va face posibilă administrarea de calculator şi a răspunsurilor la itemi deschiși.”

Evaluarea utilizând softurile de testare și evaluare

Standardele pentrutestareaeducaţională cuprind: norme profesionale pentru elaborarea testului şi utilizarea lui, precum şi norme pentru procedurile de administrare a testului, stabilireascorului şi notarea finală.

Pentru verificarea performanţei memorative (testul de memorie) în calitate de itemi trebuiesă alegem un material ce are un anumit sens, o necesitate şi o importanţă. Nu are rost să verificăm„citarea” oricăror lucrări scrise, căci ele reprezintă doar punctul de vedere al autorilor. Pentru aasigura comparabilitatea testelor, itemii diferitelor variante care se referă la acelaşi lucru, se vor regăsi în aceeaşi colecţie de subiecte, vor avea acelaşi punctaj, pondere şi număr de subiecte înorice variantă.

Foarte atent trebuie efectuată acordarea punctajelor fiecărui item. Pentru acesta există diferite metode, printre care metoda formelor paralele, care constă în utilizarea a două teste paralele şi este adecvată în cazul când se urmăreşte măsurarea unor caracteristici generale ale persoanelor examinate, pentru că doar asemenea caracteristici vor influenţa în acelaşi mod scorurile ambelor teste.

Pentrutestareacomputerizată itemii ar trebui să fie special construiți, ţinând cont de posibilităţile multimedia ale calculatorului, revenirii asupra răspunsurilor deja propuse, etc. După gradul de obiectivitate oferit în corectare deosebim trei categorii de itemi:
Obiectivi – asigură un grad ridicat de obiectivitate în notare şi permittestareaunui număr
mare de elemente de conţinut, într-un interval scurt de timp.

Semiobiectivi – permittestareaunei game variate de capacităţi intelectuale, oferind posibilitateautilizării de materiale auxiliare necesare pentru rezolvarea sarcinilor de lucru.

Subiectivi (cu răspuns deschis) – testează originalitatea, creativitatea, caracterul personal al
răspunsului. Sunt relativ uşor de construit, dar realizarea schemei de notare este destul de
complexă şi greu de aplicat.

Colecţie de itemi: o listă de itemi referindu-se la o temă, la o materie sau de un anumit tip,
grad de dificultate, etc.

Întestareaonline tipul itemului poate fi încadrat în una dintre următoarele categorii:

  • Doar o variantă dintre cele introduse în momentul formulării itemului va fi corectă.
  • Cu mai multe variante de răspuns corecte – pot exista mai multe variante de răspunsuri
    corecte, în caz particular toate sau nici unul.
  • Cu introducerea unui răspuns desfăşurat în formă liberă, cules–redactat de către cursant. Acesttip de întrebare va fi corectat doar de evaluator, deoarece astăzi un computer încă nu poatedetermina dacă răspunsul este corect sau nu.
  • Cu răspuns scurt – introducerea unor cuvinte omise, numere sau a unor răspunsuri uşor
    formalizabile, cu controlul automat efectuat de aplicaţie.
  • Cu expresii de tip adevărat/fals – acest tip de întrebare va avea doar două răspunsuri
    posibile, şi anume, adevărat sau fals.
  • Cu evaluarea variantei de răspuns – fiecărei variante de răspuns îi corespunde o valoare.
    Răspunsul corect la întrebare este dat de asocierea valorii corecte pentru fiecare variantă.
  • Cu evaluarea variantei de răspuns – fiecărei variante de răspuns îi corespunde o valoare.
    Răspunsul corect la întrebare este dat de asocierea valorii corecte pentru fiecare variantă.
  • Cu variante intermediare de răspuns – răspunsul la acest tip de întrebare poate fi corect, parţialcorect sau incorect.
  • Cu ordonare de elemente – acest tip de problemă presupune aranjarea variantelor de
    răspuns într-o ordine corectă.
  • Cu asociere de elemente – acest tip de problemă presupune asocierea corectă a elementelor dincoloana din dreapta cu variante de răspuns din coloana din stânga.

Fiecaretestse va construi manual sau se va genera în mod automat din colecţiile /mulţimile de itemi/întrebări/sarcini/probleme detest, construite în prealabil. Colecţiile vor fi specializate, din diferite tipuri de itemi, cu grad diferit de dificultate etc. Alături de colecţiile deautor pot fi utilizate şi colecţii profesionale de itemi, ale unor centre de evaluare acreditate.
Variantele detestsincron pentru diferiţierea celor evaluati pot fi afişate prin două metode:

  • generarea automată / afişare pentru fiecare cursant a unuitestdiferenţiat;
  • afişareadiferenţiată a itemilor aceluiaşitestpentru diferiţi cursanţi.
Testarea online

Evaluarea asistată de calculator (e-assessment în limba engleză) poate fi folosită pentru a evaluaabilitați cognitive și practice. Abilitațile cognitive și cunoștințele sunt evaluare cu ajutorul aplicațiilor software de tip „e-testing”, pe când abilitatile practice sunt evaluate prin intermediul„e-portofolio” sau a software-urilor de tip simulare.

Un sistem de e-testing cuprinde doua componente principale:

  • o un motor de evaluare programat (software);
  • o bancă de itemi/baterii de teste.

Online– unde locul de desfășurare poate fi acasă, la scoală, locul de muncă, sala de examen sau oriunde există un calculator/dispozitiv compatibil, cu acces la internet. Modalitatea cea mai des întâlnita de susținere a unui examenonlineeste prin intermediul testelorde tip chestionar.Acestea pot presupune răspunsuri de tip „da” / „nu” („adevărat” / „fals”) sau selectarea uneia saumai multor variante corecte de răspuns dintre mai multe posibile (teste de tip single choice saumultiple choice).

Fără a pune accent pe creativitate, testele de tip chestionar permit o evaluare cu un nivelînalt de obiectivitate, fiind aplicabile oricărei discipline. Dacă aceste teste nu sunt încărcate înprealabil într-un sistem de evaluare digitală sau incluse într-un software educațional, atunci ele potpresupune din partea evaluatorului un efort destul de mare în pregătirea întrebărilor și variantelorde răspuns.

,,Evaluarea la distanță presupune accesarea de către utilizatori a unei platforme evaluator de tip LMS (Learning Management System – sistem de management al învăţării) prin internet sauintranet.”

Un sistem de management al învăţării (de obicei abreviat ca LMS) este o aplicaţie softwarepentru administrarea, documentarea, urmărirea şi raportarea activităţilor de instruire, desfăşurateîn clasă sau ca evenimenteonline, programelor de e-learning şi a conţinutului educaţional.

Un LMS eficient şi robust ar trebui să fie capabil de următoarele acţiuni şi funcţionalităţi:
1. Să centralizeze şi să automatizeze administrarea testelor;
2. Să utilizeze self-service și servicii auto-ghidate;
3. Să asambleze şi livreze conţinut de învăţare rapid;
4. Să consolideze iniţiativele de formare pe o platformăwebscalabilă;
5. Să suporte portabilitate şi standardele definite pentru domeniu;
6. Să permită personalizarea conţinutului şi reutilizarea cunoştinţelor.

LMS-urile variază de la sistemele de gestionare a rezultatelor formării şi instruirii, până laaplicaţii software pentru distribuirea de cursuri pe Internet, cu funcţionalităţi de colaborareonline.
Din dimensiunile şi modulele mari care pot fi incluse într-un sistem de tip LMS amintim:self-service al cursanților (înscrierea cursanțiloronlinela activităţi de instruire susţinute de untrainer/instructor), flux de lucru de tip workflow pentru activităţi de instruire (de exemplu: notificări aleutilizatorilor, aprobări ale superiorului, managementul listei de aşteptare), furnizarea de instruireonlineîn regim de autoinstruire (de exemplu: instruire asistată de calculator), evaluareonline,managementul formării profesionale continue, învăţare colaborativă (de exemplu: partajare de aplicaţii şiforumuri de discuţii) şi managementul resurselor de instruire (facilităţi, echipamente).

Unele sisteme LMS sunt de tipweb-based pentru a facilita accesul la conţinutuleducaţional şi administrare.

,,LMS-urile sunt utilizate şi în cadrul instituţiilor educaţionale pentru a îmbunătăţi şisprijini procesul de instruire în clasă şi pentru a oferi cursuri către mai mulţi cursanţi dinîntreaga lume.”

Testarea online a cunoştințelor | Elearning în România (2024)

FAQs

What are the disadvantages of eLearning? ›

Disadvantages of Online Learning
  • Online Learning May Create a Sense of Isolation. Everyone learns in their own manner. ...
  • Online Learning Requires Self-Discipline. ...
  • Online Learning Requires Additional Training for Instructors. ...
  • Online Classes Are Prone to Technical Issues. ...
  • Online Learning means more screen-time.
Apr 1, 2023

What are some advantages and disadvantages of online learning? ›

Summary: What are the advantages and disadvantages of online classes?
AdvantagesDisadvantages
FlexibilityLack of face-to-face interaction
ConvenienceDifficulty staying motivated
Cost-effectivenessLimited access to resources and support
Access to a wider range of programmes and course offeringsTechnical difficulties
5 more rows

How do you succeed in virtual school? ›

Set Yourself Up for Success from the Beginning
  1. Establish a productive learning environment. ...
  2. Set a schedule for completing and reviewing assignments. ...
  3. Seek virtual interactions with your peers.
  4. Use the 'chunking' strategy to section out tasks.
  5. Try to increase your interest in the work.

What are the 3 main advantages of eLearning? ›

Top 10 Benefits of eLearning
  • E-learning Fully Adjusts to Your Needs. Online studying is designed to accommodate everyone's needs. ...
  • Reduced Cost. ...
  • Remote Approach To Various Classes. ...
  • Transfer Credits & Commuting. ...
  • Instant Career Advancement. ...
  • Quick Delivery. ...
  • Scalability. ...
  • Consistency & Teacher Scarcity.
Apr 17, 2023

What are the risks in eLearning? ›

5 Risks To Keep In Mind When Launching An Online Course
  • Low ROI Risk. This is an eLearning development risk everyone fears when starting out. ...
  • Content Quality Risk. ...
  • Ineffective Marketing Risk. ...
  • Security Risks. ...
  • Overestimating Resources Risk.
May 21, 2022

What are benefits of online learning? ›

Advantages of Online Learning
  • Flexibility. ...
  • Reduced Costs. ...
  • More Free Time. ...
  • Increased Course Variety. ...
  • Career Advancement Opportunities. ...
  • Increased Collaboration. ...
  • Personalized Education. ...
  • Enhanced Time Management Skills.

Is online learning more beneficial? ›

Online learning is not only more effective for students, but it is also better for the environment. Online courses consume 90% less energy and release 85% less CO2 per student than traditional in-person courses, according to the Open University in the United Kingdom.

Why is online education better? ›

Because online learning is more flexible than classroom-based learning, students can work through material at their own pace. People who need more time to grasp a concept can take it. People who want to work faster may do so.

What is the biggest problem in online class? ›

7 Top Challenges with Online Learning For Students (and Solutions)
  • Isolation.
  • Motivation.
  • Equipment.
  • Tech Issues.
  • Distractions.
  • Time Management.
  • Barriers to learning (Disabilities / Special Needs)
Aug 18, 2022

Why offline classes are better than online? ›

Only in offline classes is it possible to comprehend a subject better. Greater involvement and interaction – In face-to-face learning, there is greater interaction between the students and the lecturers. They get to participate in more class activities.

What to dislike about online classes? ›

Ten Disadvantages of Online Courses
  • Online courses require more time than on-campus classes. ...
  • Online courses make it easier to procrastinate. ...
  • Online courses require good time-management skills. ...
  • Online courses may create a sense of isolation. ...
  • Online courses allow you to be more independent.

How do I prepare for an online class? ›

How to Prepare for Online Classes
  1. Ensure the Internet is Reliable. ...
  2. Get familiar with the online learning tools. ...
  3. Find the ideal spot. ...
  4. Record the screen of your class. ...
  5. Keep Your Study Materials Organized. ...
  6. Keep all distractions away. ...
  7. Prepare a list of questions. ...
  8. Inform your household members.

How long should a virtual class be? ›

It's often best to keep your virtual classroom training under an hour long, and to encourage interaction, in any form, every five minutes, or so.

What should I do on the first day of virtual school? ›

And there are so many ways to make your first day of school activities welcoming and fun, whether they're online or in person.
  • Play virtual ice breaker games. ...
  • Set expectations. ...
  • Send fun virtual questionnaires. ...
  • Design virtual lockers. ...
  • Share summer stories. ...
  • Send out student learning surveys.
Jun 15, 2021

What are the two methods of eLearning? ›

They identify two primary types of e-learning: computer-based e-learning and internet-based e-learning. This classification method could be seen as more accurate because it differentiates e-learning from online learning, the two of which are often incorrectly used interchangeably.

What are the three levels of eLearning? ›

It is the rubrics to define user interaction with the elearning course and its elements.
  • Level 0 – No Interaction.
  • Level 1 – Limited Interaction.
  • Level 2 – Moderate Interaction.
  • Level 3 – Full elearning interactivity.
Sep 6, 2021

What are 3 types of e-learning? ›

Types of eLearning
  • Fixed eLearning. Fixed eLearning is one of the older versions of online learning. ...
  • Adaptive eLearning. Adaptive eLearning is another type of online learning. ...
  • Asynchronous eLearning. ...
  • Interactive eLearning. ...
  • Individual eLearning. ...
  • Collaborative eLearning.
Oct 26, 2020

What are the 4 risks of online safety? ›

The guidance states that whilst the breadth of issues classified within online safety is considerable and ever-evolving, they can be categorised into four areas of risk; content, contact, conduct and commerce.

What is a risk in education? ›

The term may be applied to students who face circumstances that could jeopardize their ability to complete school, such as homelessness, incarceration, teenage pregnancy, serious health issues, domestic violence, transiency (as in the case of migrant-worker families), or other conditions, or it may refer to learning ...

What skills can students develop from online learning? ›

The Transferable Skills Remote Learning Builds
  • Time management. Time management usually equals excellent leadership. ...
  • Digital literacy. In the current working world, lacking online and computer literacy can likely mean your job application gets rejected. ...
  • Problem-solving skills. ...
  • Work-life balance. ...
  • Online communication.
Feb 25, 2022

Which eLearning platform is best? ›

Best Online Learning Platforms – Starting Off on the Right Foot
  • Udemy Business.
  • Skillshare.
  • LinkedIn Learning.
  • Coursera.
  • edX.
  • iSpring Market.
  • Kajabi.
  • Podia.
Mar 6, 2023

Is online school better for mental health? ›

Learning from home may allow students to learn in a more comfortable environment. Students who experience bullying, anxiety, discrimination, or harassment may find that online learning benefits their mental health.

Do you learn better in-person or online? ›

Physical Learning Offers More Hands-On Experience

Face-to-face interaction is essential for greater clarity and understanding than online training. Human contact is vital to enjoy hands-on learning.

Do students learn better in school or online? ›

Some students do as well in online courses as in in-person courses, some may actually do better, but, on average, students do worse in the online setting, and this is particularly true for students with weaker academic backgrounds. Students who struggle in in-person classes are likely to struggle even more online.

Do students learn better in-person or online? ›

On average, students can retain 25% to 60% more information when learning online compared to 8% to 10% when in the classroom.

Is online school easier? ›

For some people, online programs are easier because they offer a flexible schedule. In addition, people with great time management skills and a sense of responsibility can excel in online classes. However, online education may be more challenging for those who enjoy learning in a classroom environment.

What is the success rate of online classes? ›

Success rates tend to be higher in face-to-face classes. In Fall 15, face-to-face classes had a success rate of 69% versus only 60% in online classes, a gap of 9%. However, this gap has been decreasing, with only a 3% gap in success rates in Fall 19 (70% in face-to-face versus 67% online).

What are the benefits of online learning for adults? ›

Online learning allows you to earn while you learn. You also don't need to live on campus; no dorm costs. You don't even need to drive to campus; no transportation costs. And if you care for children at home, there's no need to pay for childcare while you travel to your classes.

Why are students failing online classes? ›

Some students fail online college courses because they don't know what to expect. They may think that online classes are easier than classes taken in the classroom, when in reality these courses require more discipline and, often, more work.

Why do I struggle with online classes? ›

Students may no longer have an internet connection, a device to use, or a space to learn in. Some students may not be available to meet at specific times. Others may have a lot going on in the background that they're trying to block out or even hide from the rest of the class.

How popular is online learning? ›

Online Learning by the Numbers

According to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), public colleges enrolled about 8.5 million online students in 2021. Another 2.7 million remote learners attended private schools, including 1.9 million at nonprofit institutions and nearly 800,000 at for-profit schools.

Is online better than classroom? ›

While there may be certain social benefits to face-to-face education options, there really is no difference between online vs. classroom learning in terms of the quality of education. Both cover the same material and require the same exams.

What is the opposite of online classes? ›

Offline classes encourage students to collaborate on projects with other students and help them learn new skills. Students become more introverted as a result of online education since they only communicate with other students through online chatting rather than face-to-face interaction.

What is online learning? ›

Online learning refers to instruction that is delivered electronically through various multimedia and Internet platforms and applications. It is used interchangeably with other terms such as web-based learning, e-learning, computer-assisted instruction, and Internet-based learning.

How do you learn best? ›

As you approach a new subject, incorporate some of the following tactics:
  1. Find ways to boost your memory.
  2. Always keep learning new things.
  3. Use a variety of learning techniques.
  4. Try teaching it to someone else.
  5. Connect new information to things you already know.
  6. Look for opportunities to have hands-on experiences.
Mar 10, 2023

How many students do not like online learning? ›

Most want in-person education

According to researchers, 65 percent of students preferred in-person instruction, compared to 18 percent who prefer a hybrid model and 9 percent who reported they'd rather learn remotely.

Is online school bad for social anxiety? ›

Online learning gives students the freedom to work on their own time, at their own pace. For students with social anxiety who struggle doing simple tasks, this is especially helpful because they can slow down without feeling like they're trailing behind their classmates.

How many hours should you study for an online class? ›

You should plan to devote a minimum of three hours per week per credit, plus an additional hour per class each week to review materials. For instance, for a three-credit online course, you will need nine hours of study time and one hour of review time each week.

Are fully online classes hard? ›

Because online classes cover the same or similar material, typically in the same amount of time as traditional classes, they are not harder. The only thing that can make an online class seem harder is the amount of reading and communication they require.

How many hours is an online class? ›

Thus, many online courses run the same length as their on-campus counterparts. This means that a semester-based schedule will include approximately 15 weeks of work for 9 hours per week or 135 hours total for the semester for each 3-credit course.

How long should you study everyday for an online class? ›

The general rule of thumb regarding college studying is, that for each class, students should spend approximately 2-3 hours of study time for each hour that they spend in class.

Do colleges look down on virtual school? ›

However, most colleges do not discriminate against students who have done their high school education online. That being said, some colleges may be more likely to accept students who have done online high school than others.

Is virtual school good for anxiety? ›

For those students, online education is the perfect alternative. Online education provides a way for students to learn the important and required information without being forced to be surrounded by other people. This will reduce their social anxiety levels and help them live a better quality of life.

What are the disadvantages of e learning in organization? ›

Disadvantages Of eLearning

As with any technology, it's expected to encounter technological issues with eLearning. From connectivity issues to learners forgetting their login information, there may be technological issues when implementing and completing an eLearning activity.

What are the disadvantages of learning in the classroom? ›

Classroom Learning Disadvantages:
  • Travel time and cost.
  • Attendance times can be restrictive or inconvenient.
  • Shy students may have trouble approaching the instructor with questions.
  • You usually have to sit through each lecture even if you already know most of the material.
May 30, 2017

Which of the following are disadvantages of eLearning quizlet? ›

Online learning fails to link learners to other content, experts, and peers. Some trainees may not be motivated to learn through technology.

Which of the following is the biggest problem with e learning? ›

7 Top Challenges with Online Learning For Students (and Solutions)
  • Isolation.
  • Motivation.
  • Equipment.
  • Tech Issues.
  • Distractions.
  • Time Management.
  • Barriers to learning (Disabilities / Special Needs)
Aug 18, 2022

How can we solve the disadvantages of online learning? ›

Strong self-motivation and time management skills are a must for coping with the demands of online learning. An example of a helpful time management tool is making a schedule for learning and setting timers. For example, you can set a timer for 15 minutes in which you will focus and work without interruption.

Is e learning effective or not? ›

There Is A Higher Rate Of Retention With Online Learning

On the other side, online courses have increased student retention rates by anywhere from 25–60%.

What is an example of educational disadvantage? ›

Educational disadvantage is demonstrated in many ways, most often in poor levels of participation and achievement in the formal education system. There are other ways in which children may be disadvantaged, for example as a result of a disability, literacy difficulties, ill health or poverty.

What are 4 negative impacts of technology? ›

Children who overuse technology may be more likely to experience mental health issues, including lack of attention, low creativity, delays in language development, delays in social and emotional development, and addiction to these technologies.

What are the disadvantages of digital media in teaching and learning? ›

1) it may be distracting to students, 2) it may disconnect students from face-to-face relationships, 3) it may make cheating easier, 4) it may disadvantage certain students, 5) it may cause students to use unreliable resources for learning, 6) it may make curriculum planning more difficult or expensive, 7) it may ...

Is classroom learning better than online? ›

While there may be certain social benefits to face-to-face education options, there really is no difference between online vs. classroom learning in terms of the quality of education. Both cover the same material and require the same exams.

Why face to face learning is better than online learning? ›

The Advantages of Face to Face Learning in the Classroom

You can access more information and richer understanding through teacher and other students' body language and voice. You have the opportunity to connect with, problem-solve, and network with other students from a wide range of backgrounds.

What are the common mistakes made in the teaching of others? ›

Here are some common mistakes teachers make early on that can lead to trouble down the road.
  • Not Communicating Expectations Clearly. ...
  • Being Inconsistent. ...
  • Not Creating an Action Plan. ...
  • Waiting Too Long to Intervene. ...
  • Going Big Too Quickly. ...
  • Not Following Through. ...
  • Failing to Triage an Issue. ...
  • Not Establishing Relationships.

Which is not useful in e-learning? ›

E-Learning lacks face-to-face communication

A lack of face-to-face communication with the instructor inhibits student feedback, causes social isolation, and could cause students to feel a lack of pressure. A lack of pressure is a disadvantage because it causes students to abandon their studies more easily.

What are the three models of online learning? ›

In Summary. As you can see, there are many possibilities with distance education in its different modalities. Here I have presented a snapshot of three distance learning models, online courses, blended/hybrid and web-facilitated.

Which type of learning is the combination of face-to-face and online learning? ›

Blended learning is the concept of implementing both face-to-face learning and online learning together into a hybrid approach, allowing learners to benefit from both methods of learning.

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